Africa’s energy sector is diverse and complex with abundant natural resources for energy production, such as crude oil, natural gas, uranium, hydro, solar and biomass. It is expected to contribute about 6.1% to the region's GDP in terms of investments in the sector between 2026 and 2030. Renewable energy solutions growing in the region include solar home systems, mini-grids, off-grid appliances, electric vehicles and biogas.
Nigeria’s energy mix is dominated by fossil fuels, particularly oil and gas. The government has set a target to increase the share of renewable energy (including hydro) from 13% of total electricity generation in 2015 to 23% in 2025 and 36% by 2030. The main sources of renewable energy in Nigeria are hydro, solar and bioenergy. Solar PV currently accounts for only about 1% of electricity generation in Nigeria with growth potential. However, the country is making efforts to diversify its energy mix and increase its share of renewable energy.
South Africa’s energy mix is made up of mainly coal, which accounts for about 83.5% of the country’s nominal generation capacity. The country is also seeking to increase its renewable energy capacity and reduce its dependence on fossil fuels, with a target of generating 30% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2030 from 16.1%.
Kenya is a leader in renewable energy in Africa with over 90% of its energy being generated from renewable sources which include hydroelectricity 45%, geothermal 29%, 12%, thermal 9% and solar 5%. The government has set a target of installing 5,000 MW of solar power by 2030, with a focus on decentralized and community-based solar projects.
Ghana’s energy supply is composed of Hydro generation, as well as thermal generation fueled by crude oil, natural gas, and diesel which continue to dominate. It is currently dominated by fossil fuels, with oil and gas accounting for the majority of the country's energy consumption. However, the government is working to increase the share of renewable energy in the mix, with a target of generating 30% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2025.
Senegal’s energy mix is diverse, with a growing emphasis on renewable energy sources, it is composed of Oil 56%, Gas 19% and renewable energy 25%. The country is making efforts to diversify its energy mix and reduce its reliance on fossil fuels.
Ivory Coast’s energy mix for electricity generation is mainly based on fossil fuels, which account for 76.27% of the total. However, the country also has plans to increase its share of renewable energy to 42% by 2030, with a focus on biomass, hydro and solar power sources.
In general, the renewable energy industries in Africa are still young and developing and investing in renewable energy in Africa has increased in the last two decades but remains low compared to other regions. Governments are developing frameworks to tap into the region’s potential for renewable power generation as this only comprises 9% of total power generation at the moment.